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Selasa, 09 Maret 2010

proses dsain bola basket

The Manufacturing Process

Forming the bladder Membentuk kandung

  • The making of a basketball begins with the interior bladder. Pembuatan bola basket dimulai dengan interior kandung kemih. Black butyl rubber in bulk form (and including recycled rubber) is melted in the hopper of a press that feeds it out in a continuous sheet that is 12 in (30.5 cm) wide and 0.5 in (1.3 cm) thick. Karet butil hitam dalam bentuk curah (dan termasuk karet daur ulang) adalah meleleh dalam gerbong dari pers bahwa feed ini di lembar yang kontinu adalah 12 in (30,5 cm) lebar dan 0,5 di (1,3 cm) tebal. A guillotine-like cutter cuts the long strip into sheets that are 18 in (45.7 cm) long, and they are stacked up. Sebuah guillotine-seperti pemotong memotong kirai menjadi lembaran yang 18 di (45,7 cm) lama, dan mereka ditumpuk. A hand-controlled machine selects the sheets one at a time and, using a punch press, punches a 1-in-diameter (2.54-cm-diameter) hole that will hold the air tube for inflating the bladder. Sebuah tangan-mesin yang dikontrol memilih lembaran satu per satu waktu dan, menggunakan pukulan tekan, punches 1-di-diameter (2,54 cm diameter) lubang yang akan memegang tabung udara karena menggelembungkan kandung kemih.
  • The sheets are carried on a sheet elevator or conveyor to an assembly line where the air tube is inserted by hand. Seprai dilakukan pada selembar lift atau konveyor ke jalur perakitan di mana tabung udara dimasukkan dengan tangan. A heated melding device bonds it to the sheet, which is folded into quarters. Sebuah perangkat penyatuan dipanaskan obligasi ke lembar, yang dilipat menjadi empat. Another punch press stamps out a rounded edge and, at the same time, binds the edges to make the seams of the bladder. Punch lain tekan perangko mengeluarkan ujung bulat dan, pada saat yang sama, mengikat ujung-ujungnya untuk membuat jahitan kandung kemih. This bladder is not perfectly shaped. Kandung kemih ini tidak terbentuk sempurna.
  • The odd-shaped bladder is taken to a vulcanizing machine. Berbentuk aneh kandung kemih vulcanizing dibawa ke sebuah mesin. Vulcanization is a process for heating rubber under pressure that improves its properties by making it more flexible, more durable , and stronger. Vulkanisasi adalah proses untuk memanaskan karet di bawah tekanan yang memperbaiki sifat-sifatnya dengan membuatnya lebih fleksibel, lebih tahan lama, dan lebih kuat. In the vulcanizer, the bladder is inflated. Dalam vulcanizer, kandung kemih meningkat. Heating by vulcanization uniformly seals the rubber so it will hold air. Pemanasan oleh vulkanisasi karet segel seragam sehingga akan terus udara. Completed bladders are stored in a holding chamber for 24 hours. Selesai kandung kemih disimpan dalam kamar holding selama 24 jam. This quality control measure tests their ability to hold air; those that deflate are recycled. Kontrol kualitas ini tes mengukur kemampuan mereka untuk menahan udara; orang-orang yang mengempis didaur ulang.

Shaping the carcass Membentuk bangkai

  • The bladders that withstand the 24-hour inflation test are conveyed from the holding chamber to the twining or winding department. Yang kandung kemih yang menahan inflasi 24-jam tes disampaikan dari ruang memegang ke melilit atau departemen berkelok-kelok. They make this joumey suspended from a conveyor system by their air tubes. Mereka membuat joumey ini tergantung pada sebuah sistem ban tabung udara mereka. Machines loaded with spools of either polyester or nylon thread or string wrap multiple strands at a time around each bladder; this is the same process used to make the inside of a golf ball. Mesin penuh dengan gulungan baik poliester atau benang atau tali nilon membungkus beberapa helai pada waktu sekitar setiap kandung kemih, inilah proses yang sama digunakan untuk membuat bagian dalam bola golf. The irregularly shaped bladders now begin to take on a better, more rounded shape as the precisely controlled threads build and shape the balls. Berbentuk kandung kemih yang tidak teratur sekarang mulai mengambil yang lebih baik, lebih bulat bentuknya seperti benang dikendalikan justru membangun dan membentuk bola. The quality of the thread and the number of strands determine the cost and quality of the ball. Kualitas benang dan jumlah untai menentukan biaya dan kualitas bola. The typical street-quality basketball has a carcass made of multiple wraps of three strands of polyester thread. Jalan khas basket berkualitas memiliki bangkai yang terbuat dari berbagai pembungkus dari tiga helai benang poliester. The balls used by professional teams have carcasses constructed of nylon thread that is wrapped using four strands of thread. Bola yang digunakan oleh tim-tim profesional bangkai terbuat dari benang nilon yang dibungkus menggunakan empat helai benang. The same over-head conveyors continue carrying the carcass-encased bladders by their air tubes to the next step in the process where the carcasses and covers will meet. Yang sama melintas diatas kepala Konveyor terus membawa bangkai-terbungkus kandung kemih oleh tabung udara mereka ke langkah berikutnya dalam proses di mana bangkai dan meliputi akan bertemu.

Crafting the covers of the balls Kerajinan sampul bola

  • Meanwhile, the exteriors or covers of the balls have been in production as the bladders and carcasses have taken shape. Sementara itu, eksterior atau sampul dari bola telah produksi sebagai kandung kemih dan bangkai telah mengambil bentuk. On 60-inch-long (152-cm-long) tables, colored rubber is unrolled from a continuous roll. On 60-inci-panjang (152-cm-panjang) tabel, karet berwarna membuka gulungan dari roll kontinu. The smooth rubber does not have pebbling (small bumps ) that characterizes the surface of a finished basketball so that the outlines for the panels can be clearly marked on the rubber. Karet yang halus tidak memiliki pebbling (kecil benjolan) yang menjadi ciri khas permukaan bola basket yang sudah selesai sehingga garis-garis besar untuk panel dapat dengan jelas ditandai pada karet. A silk screen is moved along a series of metal markers that are guides marking the length of the rubber sheet needed for each ball. Sebuah layar sutra bergerak sepanjang serangkaian penanda logam yang menandai panduan panjang lembaran karet yang diperlukan untuk setiap bola. The silk screen operator moves the screen by hand and imprints the outlines of the six panels making up the ball. Layar sutra operator layar bergerak dengan tangan dan cetakan garis-garis besar dari enam panel yang membentuk bola. Only one color is used at a time, and, depending on the design, multiple silk screenings may be needed to color the six panels with all the colors on the ball. Hanya satu warna yang digunakan pada satu waktu, dan, tergantung pada desain, pemutaran beberapa sutra mungkin diperlukan untuk mewarnai enam panel dengan semua warna pada bola.
  • A hand-operated punch press—equipped with specially designed and tooled dies—punches the rubber outlines to create six separate panels per ball. Sebuah pukulan tangan dioperasikan tekan-dilengkapi dengan dirancang khusus dan mati-punches tooled karet untuk membuat enam garis panel terpisah per bola. The same die has a hole that is punched in one of the six panels to make an opening for the air tube. Mati yang sama memiliki lubang yang menekan salah satu dari enam panel untuk membuat celah untuk tabung udara. The excess rubber surrounding the panels is lifted off the line and deposited in a bin for recycling . Kelebihan karet yang mengelilingi panel diangkat dari garis dan disimpan di tempat sampah untuk daur ulang.
  • The assembly worker picks up the six panels for a single ball in a specific order and carries them to the vulcanizer. Pekerja perakitan mengambil enam panel untuk satu bola dalam urutan tertentu dan membawa mereka ke vulcanizer. The interior of the vulcanizer for this process is different from the one for the bladders. Bagian dalam vulcanizer untuk proses ini berbeda dari satu untuk kandung kemih. It is form-fitted to hold the six panels, to create the channels between the panels, and to add any embossed information. Ini adalah bentuk-dipasang untuk menahan enam panel, untuk membuat saluran antara panel, dan untuk menambahkan informasi timbul. The assembler fits the panels individually into specified sections in the vulcanizer. Assembler yang cocok dengan panel secara individual ke dalam bagian-bagian tertentu di vulcanizer. A bladder/carcass is taken off the overhead conveyor, covered with a coating of glue , and placed inside the chamber of the vulcanizer that is lined with the cover panels. Sebuah kandung kemih / bangkai ini diambil dari atas ban berjalan, ditutupi dengan lapisan lem, dan ditempatkan di dalam ruangan dari vulcanizer yang dilapisi dengan penutup panel. When the ball emerges from the vulcanizer, most of its surface is still smooth (there are no bumps, called pebbling), but the channels and any embossing are formed into the surface. Ketika bola muncul dari vulcanizer, sebagian besar permukaan masih mulus (tidak ada benjolan, yang disebut pebbling), tetapi saluran dan setiap timbul dibentuk ke permukaan.
  • Decals and foil decoration and information (if any) are applied by hand with small heat presses after the smooth ball is retrieved from the vulcanizer. Decals dan foil dekorasi dan informasi (jika ada) yang diterapkan oleh tangan dengan panas kecil menekan setelah bola yang halus diambil dari vulcanizer. Each ball is carefully inspected for gaps between the panels. Setiap bola dengan hati-hati diperiksa untuk kesenjangan antara panel. These can occur, but each gap is filled during this inspection with a small piece of rubber that is hand-cut to fit the gap. Ini dapat terjadi, tetapi setiap celah diisi selama pemeriksaan ini dengan sepotong kecil karet yang dipotong tangan agar sesuai dengan kesenjangan. The ball then is fitted into another vulcanizer that unifies the finished surface, blending in any gap fillers, and is specially molded to form the surface pebbling. Bola kemudian dipasang ke vulcanizer lain yang menyatukan permukaan yang telah selesai, menyatu dalam setiap celah pengisi, dan secara khusus dibentuk untuk membentuk permukaan pebbling. The vulcanized balls are stored again for 24 hours in a second test to make sure they hold air. Bola yang divulkanisir disimpan lagi selama 24 jam dalam tes kedua untuk memastikan mereka terus udara.

Synthetic laminated covers and leather covers Sintetis dan kulit laminasi mencakup mencakup

  • The covers for basketballs that are made of synthetic laminated rubber or leather are also made in panels that are die-cut like the rubber panels. The synthetic laminated panels are shaved or trimmed along the edges, fitted and glued together by hand, and laminated to the carcass to create channels. They are also embossed by a heating process and decals are added. Any glue traces around the edges are removed, and any imperfect panels are replaced in the final inspection of synthetic laminated covers. Leather covers are made of full-grain, genuine leather and are stitched with heavy-duty machines; instead of indented , formed channels, the stitching forms the channels in leather balls. They are printed by silk screening and foil stamping, and their inspection includes a review of the uniformity and color of the leather.

Final testing, inspecting, and packing Final pengujian, inspeksi, dan pengepakan

  • Balls that pass the second 24-hour air pressure test are "bounce tested" to meet the regulation for inflation pressure that results in each ball bouncing a prescribed height. Balls that pass the bounce test are numbered to show the production run, and the decals and other artwork are inspected and touched up by hand as needed. Each completed ball is inspected again. The inspector removes the production run tag, and the ball is deflated so it can be easily packed and shipped. Each flattened ball is packed in a polyethylene bag, and the bagged balls are boxed for bulk shipment to the distributor. The distributor also inspects the balls when they are received and is responsible for reinflating them to the correct pressure and packaging them in display boxes for sale. The display boxes may also be packed in bulk for distribution to retailers.

Byproducts/Waste Produk sampingan / Limbah

No byproducts result from the manufacture of basketballs, but most makers have a variety of lines and may also make balls for other sports. Tidak ada hasil produk samping dari pembuatan bola basket, tapi kebanyakan pembuat memiliki berbagai garis dan mungkin juga membuat bola untuk olahraga lainnya. Waste is limited. Limbah terbatas. Dies for cutting panels of rubber, synthetic laminate , and leather are carefully designed to space the panels closely and limit the material used. Dies untuk memotong panel karet, sintetis laminasi, dan kulit secara hati-hati dirancang untuk ruang panel erat dan membatasi bahan yang digunakan. This is especially critical for leather because of the cost; some leather waste is inevitable, though, because leather is a natural material and has irregularities in color, thickness, and surface. Hal ini terutama penting bagi kulit karena biaya; beberapa limbah kulit tidak dapat dihindari, karena kulit merupakan bahan alami dan memiliki penyimpangan dalam warna, ketebalan, dan permukaan. All rubber materials can be recycled, and they represent the bulk of material used in making a basketball. Semua bahan karet dapat didaur ulang, dan mereka mewakili sebagian besar bahan yang digunakan dalam pembuatan bola basket.

Quality Control Quality Control

Throughout the manufacturing process, inspections occur regularly to make sure the finished basketball will hold air and to correct any surface variations. Selama proses pembuatan, inspeksi terjadi secara teratur untuk memastikan selesai basket akan terus udara dan untuk memperbaiki setiap permukaan variasi. Machines like punch presses, dies, vulcanizers, and printing tools are carefully designed initially to maximize use of materials and to create perfect pieces. Mesin seperti punch menekan, meninggal, vulcanizers, dan alat-alat percetakan secara hati-hati dirancang awalnya untuk memaksimalkan penggunaan bahan dan untuk membuat potongan-potongan yang sempurna. The assembly process includes many steps that are performed by hand, and the assemblers are trained to watch for imperfections and reject unsuitable products. Proses pemasangan mencakup banyak langkah yang dilakukan oleh tangan, dan perakit dilatih untuk melihat ketidaksempurnaan dan menolak cocok produk. Inspections and tests also include weight-control testing of the completed carcasses and the panels, regardless of material. Pemeriksaan dan tes juga meliputi pengendalian berat badan pengujian selesai bangkai dan panel, tanpa memandang materi. Whenever the completed products are stored for any length of time, they are randomly inspected for appearance, size, inflation, and any wobble . Setiap kali produk selesai disimpan untuk waktu yang lama, mereka diperiksa secara acak untuk penampilan, ukuran, inflasi, dan setiap goyangan.

Some distributors have special tests for products bearing their name. Beberapa distributor tes khusus untuk produk membawa nama mereka. For example, Rawlings Sporting Goods Company tests the basketballs they produce for the NCAA Tournament with a unique "Slam Machine" that simulates the workout a ball will get in four games in just five minutes. Sebagai contoh, Perusahaan Rawlings Sporting Goods tes bola basket yang mereka hasilkan untuk NCAA Tournament dengan unik "Slam Machine" yang mensimulasikan latihan bola akan mendapatkan dalam empat pertandingan hanya dalam waktu lima menit. The machine works by propelling the ball down a chute between two wooden wheels that launch it at about 30 mph (48 kph ) toward a backboard that is angled to direct the ball back to the chute. Mesin bekerja dengan mendorong bola di sebuah terowongan di antara dua roda kayu yang diluncurkan pada sekitar 30 mph (48 kph) menuju papan yang miring untuk mengarahkan bola kembali ke gorong-gorong. Rawlings also uses this machine to test new designs, materials, glues, and other changes. Rawlings juga menggunakan mesin ini untuk menguji desain baru, bahan, perekat, dan perubahan lain.

The Future Masa Depan

Basketball sales have escalated dramatically with the sport's popularity. Basket penjualan telah meningkat secara dramatis dengan popularitas olahraga. Figures from 1998 show that 3.6 million balls were sold in the United States alone for a total of about $60 million. Angka-angka dari tahun 1998 menunjukkan bahwa 3,6 juta bola yang dijual di Amerika Serikat saja untuk total sekitar $ 60 juta. Given the record number of television viewers for the 1999-2000 NBA Championships, many parents and children are likely to purchase basketballs to test their own slam-dunking skills. Mengingat jumlah rekor pemirsa televisi untuk kejuaraan NBA 1999-2000, banyak orangtua dan anak-anak cenderung untuk membeli bola basket untuk menguji mereka sendiri dunk membanting-keterampilan. Participation in the sport and sale of basketballs shows no sign of slowing down. Partisipasi dalam olahraga bola basket dan penjualan tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda melambat.

Another aspect of the worldwide popularity of basketball is that it has sharpened collectors' enthusiasm for souvenir balls, autographed balls, and those from key moments of the great players' games. Aspek lain dari popularitas basket di seluruh dunia adalah bahwa ia telah dipertajam kolektor 'antusiasme untuk suvenir bola, bola ditandatangani, dan orang-orang dari saat-saat penting pemain besar' permainan. An example with a high price tag is the basketball Wilt Chamberlain used to score 100 points in a game; it was sold in the 1990s for $551,844. Contoh dengan harga tinggi adalah basket Wilt Chamberlain digunakan untuk mencetak 100 poin dalam permainan, melainkan dijual di tahun 1990-an untuk $ 551.844.

Where to Learn More Mana untuk Mempelajari Lebih Banyak

Books Buku

The Diagram Group. The Rule Book: The Authoritative, Up-to-Date, Illustrated Guide to the Regulations, History, and Object of All Major Sports. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. The Diagram Group. The Rule Buku: dipercaya, Up-to-Date, Illustrated Guide to Peraturan, Sejarah, dan Objek Semua Mayor Olahraga. New York: St Martin's Press, 1983.

Jacobs, AG, ed. Basketball Rules in Pictures. New York: Perigee Books, 1966. Jacobs, AG, ed. Basketball Aturan in Pictures. New York: Perigee Books, 1966.

Periodicals Periodicals

Feldman, Jay. Feldman, Jay. "A Hole New Ball Game." Sports Illustrated 18, no. "A Hole New Ball Game." Sports Illustrated 18, no. 26 (December 26, 1994): 102. 26 (26 Desember 1994): 102.

Jaffe, Michael. Jaffe, Michael. "For Better Shooting, Think Big: A Team of Ohio Entrepreneurs Insists that Their Oversized Basketball Will Improve Your Touch." Sports Illustrated 74, no. 15 (April 22, 1991): 5. 15 (22 April, 1991): 5.

Mooney, Loren. Mooney, Loren. "Get a Grip." Sports Illustrated (November 30, 1998): 16. "Get a Grip." Sports Illustrated (November 30, 1998): 16.

Tooley, Jo Ann. "On a Roll." US News & World Report 107, no. 8 (August 21, 1989): 66. 8 (21 Agustus 1989): 66.

Other Lain

Rawlings Sporting Goods Co., Inc. http://www.rawlings.com . Rawlings Sporting Goods Co, Inc http://www.rawlings.com. (December 14, 2000). (14 Desember 2000).

[Article by: Gillian S. Holmes] [Artikel oleh: Gillian S. Holmes]


Food and Fitness: Makanan dan Kebugaran:

basketball basket

Top Puncak

Basketball is a physically demanding game requiring high levels of skill and fitness. Basket adalah permainan yang menuntut fisik yang membutuhkan keterampilan tingkat tinggi dan kebugaran. It involves all muscles involved in sprinting, turning, and jumping, but it is particularly stressful on joints used in landing. Ini melibatkan semua otot yang terlibat dalam berlari, berputar, dan melompat, tetapi stres pada sendi terutama digunakan dalam pendaratan. The ankle is the body part most frequently injured during basketball. Pergelangan kaki adalah bagian tubuh yang paling sering terluka ketika basket. Other common injuries are jumper's knee and bruises on the upper thighs. Umum lainnya jumper cedera lutut dan memar di paha atas. There is also considerable strain on the chest muscles caused by the overhead arm-stretch movements characteristic of the game. Ada juga banyak tekanan pada otot-otot dada yang disebabkan oleh tangan-stretch overhead karakteristik gerakan permainan. A thorough warm up and good physical condition will reduce the risk of injury. Pemanasan menyeluruh dan kondisi fisik yang baik akan mengurangi risiko cedera. Games tend to be fiercely competitive and basketball requires considerable aggression. Permainan cenderung sangat kompetitif dan bola basket yang cukup memerlukan agresi. Basketball is immensely popular in the USA and is one of the most popular spectator sports in the world. Basket yang sangat populer di AS dan merupakan salah satu penonton olahraga paling populer di dunia.

US History Encyclopedia: US History Encyclopedia:

Basketball Basket

Top Puncak

James Naismith, originally from Al-monte, Ontario, invented basketball at the International YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. James Naismith, berasal dari Al-monte, Ontario, menemukan basket di YMCA International Training School di Springfield, Massachusetts, pada tahun 1891. The game was first played with peach baskets (hence the name) and a soccer ball and was intended to provide indoor exercise for football players. Permainan ini pertama kali dimainkan dengan keranjang buah persik (maka nama) dan bola sepak dan dimaksudkan untuk memberikan latihan dalam ruangan untuk pemain sepak bola. As a result, it was originally a rough sport. Sebagai hasilnya, pada mulanya merupakan olahraga kasar. Although ten of Naismith's original thirteen rules remain, the game soon changed considerably, and the founder had little to do with its evolution. Meskipun sepuluh dari tiga belas asli Naismith aturan tetap, permainan segera berubah banyak, dan pendiri tak banyak hubungannya dengan evolusi.

The first intercollegiate game was played in Minnesota in 1895, with nine players to a side and a final score of nine to three. Pertama antar permainan yang dimainkan di Minnesota pada tahun 1895, dengan sembilan pemain ke samping dan skor akhir sembilan sampai tiga. A year later, the first five-man teams played at the University of Chicago. Setahun kemudian, lima orang pertama yang dimainkan tim di University of Chicago. Baskets were now constructed of twine nets but it was not until 1906 that the bottom of the nets were open. Keranjang itu sekarang dibuat dari benang jaring tetapi tidak sampai 1906 bahwa bagian bawah jaring terbuka. In 1897, the dribble was first used, field goals became two points, foul shots one point, and the first professional game was played. Pada tahun 1897, yang menggiring bola pertama kali digunakan, tujuan lapangan menjadi dua titik, busuk tembakan satu titik, dan permainan profesional pertama dimainkan. A year later, the first professional league was started, in the East, while in 1900, the first intercollegiate league began. Setahun kemudian, liga profesional pertama dimulai, di Timur, sementara pada tahun 1900, liga antar perguruan tinggi pertama dimulai. In 1910, in order to limit rough play, it was agreed that four fouls would disqualify players, and glass backboards were used for the first time. Tahun 1910, dalam rangka membatasi bermain kasar, disepakati bahwa empat pelanggaran akan mendiskualifikasi pemain, dan kaca backboards digunakan untuk pertama kalinya. Nonetheless, many rules still differed, depending upon where the games were played and whether professionals, collegians, or YMCA players were involved. Meskipun demikian, banyak peraturan yang masih berbeda, tergantung pada di mana permainan yang dimainkan dan apakah profesional, collegians, atau YMCA pemain yang terlibat.

College basketball was played from Texas to Wisconsin and throughout the East through the 1920s, but most teams played only in their own regions, which prevented a national game or audience from developing. College basketball dimainkan dari Texas ke Wisconsin dan di seluruh Timur melalui tahun 1920-an, tetapi kebanyakan tim diputar hanya pada daerah mereka sendiri, yang mencegah permainan nasional atau penonton dari berkembang. Professional basketball was played almost exclusively in the East before the 1920s, except when a team would " barnstorm " into the Midwest to play local teams, often after a league had folded. Basket profesional dimainkan hampir secara eksklusif di Timur sebelum tahun 1920-an, kecuali ketika sebuah tim akan "barnstorm" ke Midwest untuk bermain tim-tim lokal, seringkali setelah liga telah dilipat. Before the 1930s very few games, either professional or amateur, were played in facilities suitable for basketball or with a perfectly round ball. Sebelum tahun 1930-an sangat sedikit permainan, baik profesional maupun amatir, yang dimainkan di fasilitas yang cocok untuk basket atau dengan bola bulat sempurna. Some were played in arenas with chicken wire separating the players from fans, thus the word "cagers," others with posts in the middle of the floor and often with balconies overhanging the corners, limiting the areas from which shots could be taken. Ada yang bermain di arena dengan kawat ayam yang memisahkan para pemain dari penggemar, sehingga kata "cagers," orang lain dengan posting di tengah-tengah lantai dan balkon menjorok seringkali dengan sudut-sudut, membatasi bidang gambar yang dapat diambil. Until the late 1930s, all players used the two-hand set shot, and scores remained low. Sampai akhir 1930-an, semua pemain menggunakan tangan dua set ditembak, dan skor tetap rendah.

Basketball in the 1920s and 1930s became both more organized and more popular, although it still lagged far behind both baseball and college football. Basket di tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an menjadi baik lebih terorganisasi dan lebih populer, walaupun masih tertinggal jauh di belakang perguruan tinggi baik bisbol dan sepak bola. In the pros, five urban, ethnic teams excelled and played with almost no college graduates. Dalam pro, lima kota, etnis tim unggul dan bermain dengan hampir tidak ada lulusan perguruan tinggi. They were the New York Original Celtics; the Cleveland Rosenblums, owned by Max Rosenblum; Eddie Gottlieb's Philadelphia SPHAs (South Philadelphia Hebrew Association); and two great black teams, the New York Renaissance Five and Abe Saperstein's Harlem Globetrotters, which was actually from Chicago. Mereka adalah New York Original Celtics; Rosenblums Cleveland, yang dimiliki oleh Max Rosenblum; Eddie Gottlieb's Philadelphia SPHAs (Asosiasi Ibrani Philadelphia Selatan), dan dua tim hitam besar, New York Renaissance Lima dan Abe Saperstein's Harlem Globetrotters, yang sebenarnya dari Chicago . While these teams had some notable players, no superstars, such as Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, or Red Grange, emerged to capture the public's attention as they did in other sports of the period. Sementara tim-tim ini memiliki beberapa pemain penting, tidak ada superstar, seperti Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, atau Red Grange, muncul untuk menangkap perhatian publik seperti yang mereka lakukan dalam olahraga lain pada masa itu. The same was true in college basketball up until the late 1930s, with coaches dominating the game and its development. Hal yang sama terjadi di kampus basket sampai akhir 1930-an, dengan pelatih mendominasi permainan dan perkembangannya. Walter "Doc" Meanwell at Wisconsin, Forrest "Phog" Allen at Kansas, Ward "Piggy" Lambert at Purdue , and Henry "Doc" Carlson at Pittsburgh all made significant contributions to the game's development: zone defenses, the weave , the passing game, and the fast break. Walter "Doc" MEANWELL di Wisconsin, Forrest "Phog" Allen di Kansas, Ward "Piggy" Lambert di Purdue, dan Henry "Doc" Carlson di Pittsburgh semua membuat kontribusi yang signifikan terhadap perkembangan permainan: zona pertahanan, yang menenun, yang lewat permainan , dan cepat istirahat.

In the decade preceding World War II, five events changed college basketball and allowed it to become a major spectator sport. Pada dekade sebelum Perang Dunia II, lima peristiwa berubah college basketball dan memungkinkannya untuk menjadi besar penonton olahraga. In 1929, the rules committee reversed a decision that would have outlawed dribbling and slowed the game considerably. Pada 1929, komite peraturan dibalik keputusan yang akan melarang menggiring bola dan memperlambat permainan jauh. Five years later, promoter Edward "Ned" Irish staged the first intersectional twin bill in Madison Square Garden in New York City and attracted more than 16,000 fans. Lima tahun kemudian, promotor Edward "Ned" dipentaskan Irlandia kembar titik-temu pertama tagihan di Madison Square Garden di New York City dan menarik lebih dari 16.000 penggemar. He demonstrated the appeal of major college ball and made New York its center. Ia menunjukkan daya tarik perguruan tinggi utama bola dan membuat New York pusatnya. In December 1936, Hank Luisetti of Stanford revealed the virtues of the one-handed shot to an amazed Garden audience and became the first major collegiate star. Pada Desember 1936, Hank Luisetti dari Stanford mengungkapkan kebaikan menyerahkan satu tembakan ke Garden kagum penonton dan menjadi perguruan tinggi besar pertama bintang. Soon thereafter, Luisetti scored an incredible fifty points against Duquesne, thus ending the East's devotion to the set shot and encouraging a more open game. Tak lama kemudian, Luisetti mencetak lima puluh poin yang luar biasa terhadap Duquesne, dengan demikian mengakhiri pengabdian Timur ke set ditembak dan mendorong permainan yang lebih terbuka. In consecutive years the center jump was eliminated after free throws and then after field goals, thus speeding up the game and allowing for more scoring. Dalam tahun berturut-turut melompat pusat dihilangkan setelah lemparan bebas dan kemudian setelah tujuan lapangan, sehingga mempercepat permainan dan lebih memungkinkan untuk mencetak gol. In 1938, Irish created the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in the Garden to determine a national champion. Tahun 1938, Irlandia menciptakan Turnamen Undangan Nasional (NIT) di Taman untuk menentukan juara nasional. Although postseason tournaments had occurred before, the NIT was the first with major colleges from different regions and proved to be a great financial success. Meskipun turnamen postseason telah terjadi sebelumnya, NIT adalah pertama dengan perguruan tinggi besar dari berbagai daerah dan terbukti sukses finansial yang besar. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) created its own postseason tournament in 1939 but did not rival the NIT in prestige for some time. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) diciptakan postseason sendiri turnamen pada tahun 1939 tetapi tidak menyaingi NIT di prestise untuk beberapa waktu.

The 1940s saw significant changes for college basketball. 1940-an melihat perubahan yang signifikan untuk kuliah basket. Players began using the jump shot after Kenny Sailors of Wyoming wowed the East with it in 1943. Pemain mulai menggunakan tembakan melompat setelah Kenny Pelaut Wyoming kagum dengan Timur pada tahun 1943. The behind-the-back dribble and pass also appeared, as did exceptional big men. Yang di-balik-kembali menggiring bola dan lulus juga muncul, seperti halnya laki-laki yang luar biasa besar. Bob Kurland at Oklahoma A&M was almost seven feet tall and George Mikan at DePaul was six feet ten inches. Bob Kurland di Oklahoma A & M sudah hampir tujuh meter dan George Mikan di DePaul enam kaki sepuluh inci. While Kurland had perhaps the better college career and played in two Olympics, he chose not to play professional ball, whereas Mikan became the first dominant star in the pros. Sementara itu mungkin Kurland kuliah lebih baik karir dan bermain di dua Olimpiade, dia memilih untuk tidak bermain bola profesional, sedangkan Mikan menjadi dominan pertama bintang di pro. Their defensive play inspired the rule against goal tending (blocking a shot on its downward flight). Bermain pertahanan mereka mengilhami tujuan aturan yang melarang merawat (pemblokiran tembakan pada penerbangan ke bawah). Adolph Rupp, who played under Phog Allen, also coached the first of his many talented teams at Kentucky in that decade. Adolph Rupp, yang bermain di bawah Phog Allen, juga melatih pertama dari sekian banyak tim berbakat di Kentucky di dekade. However, in 1951, Rupp and six other coaches suffered through a point-shaving scandal that involved thirty-two players at seven colleges and seriously injured college basketball, particularly in New York, where four of the seven schools were located. Namun, pada tahun 1951, Rupp dan enam lainnya menderita pelatih melalui titik-cukur skandal yang melibatkan tiga puluh dua pemain di tujuh perguruan tinggi dan mengalami luka serius basket perguruan tinggi, khususnya di New York, di mana empat dari tujuh sekolah berada. While the game survived, the NCAA moved its tournament away from Madison Square Garden to different cities each year and the NIT's prestige began to decline. Sementara permainan bertahan hidup, NCAA memindahkan turnamen menjauh dari Madison Square Garden untuk kota yang berbeda setiap tahun dan prestise NIT mulai menurun.

Professional basketball remained a disorganized and stodgy sport up until the late 1940s, with barnstorming still central to the game and most players still using the set shot. Basket profesional tetap menjadi teratur dan kolot olahraga sampai akhir 1940-an, dengan barnstorming masih sentral dalam permainan dan sebagian besar pemain masih menggunakan set ditembak. In 1946, however, hockey owners, led by Maurice Podoloff, created the Basketball Association of America (BAA) in the East to fill their arenas, but few fans came, even after Joe Fulks of Philadelphia introduced the jump shot. Pada tahun 1946, bagaimanapun, hoki pemilik, yang dipimpin oleh Maurice Podoloff, menciptakan Basketball Association of America (BAA) di Timur untuk mengisi arena mereka, tetapi hanya sedikit penggemar datang, bahkan setelah Joe Fulks Philadelphia memperkenalkan jump shot. The BAA's rival, the National Basketball League, had existed since the 1930s, had better players, like Mikan of the Minneapolis Lakers, Bob Davies of the Rochester Royals, and Dolph Shayes of the Syracuse Nationals, but operated in much worse facilities and did not do much better at attracting audiences. Saingan yang BAA, National Basketball League, telah ada sejak tahun 1930-an, lebih baik pemain, seperti Mikan dari Minneapolis Lakers, Bob Davies dari Rochester Royals, dan Dolph Shayes dari Syracuse Nationals, tetapi beroperasi di fasilitas yang jauh lebih buruk dan tidak berbuat lebih baik dalam menarik khalayak. In 1948, Podoloff lured the Lakers , Royals, and two other teams to the BAA and proposed a merger of the two leagues for the 1949–1950 season. Pada tahun 1948, Podoloff terpikat dengan Lakers, Royals, dan dua tim lain ke BAA dan mengusulkan penggabungan dua liga untuk musim 1949-1950. The result was the National Basketball Association (NBA), with Podoloff its first commissioner. Hasilnya adalah National Basketball Association (NBA), dengan Podoloff komisaris pertama. The seventeen-team league struggled at first but soon reduced its size and gained stability, in large part because of Mikan's appeal and Podoloff's skills. Tujuh belas tim liga berjuang pada awalnya, tetapi segera mengurangi ukuran dan memperoleh stabilitas, sebagian besar karena Mikan Podoloff banding dan keterampilan.

Despite the point-shaving scandal, college ball thrived in the 1950s, largely because it had prolific scorers and more great players than in any previous decade. Meskipun titik-cukur skandal, bola perguruan tinggi berkembang di tahun 1950-an, terutama karena itu produktif skor dan pemain lebih banyak daripada di dekade sebelumnya. Frank Selvy of Furman and Paul Arizin of Villanova both averaged over forty points early in the decade, while Clarence "Bevo" Francis of tiny Rio Grande College in Ohio amazed fans by scoring 116 points in one game while averaging 50 per game for a season. Frank Selvy dari Furman dan Paul Arizin dari Villanova kedua rata-rata lebih dari empat puluh poin pada awal dekade, sementara Clarence "Bevo" Fransiskus dari Rio Grande kecil College di Ohio kagum para penggemar dengan skor 116 poin dalam satu pertandingan, sementara rata-rata 50 per pertandingan untuk satu musim. The decade also witnessed some of the most talented and complete players ever. Dasawarsa juga menyaksikan beberapa yang paling berbakat dan pemain yang pernah lengkap. Tom Gola at LaSalle , Bill Russell at San Francisco, Wilt Chamberlain at Kansas, Elgin Baylor at Seattle, Jerry West at West Virginia, and Oscar Robertson at Cincinnati, all had phenomenal skills that have since been the measure of other players. Tom Gola di LaSalle, Bill Russell di San Francisco, di Kansas Wilt Chamberlain, Elgin Baylor di Seattle, Jerry West di West Virginia, dan Oscar Robertson di Cincinnati, semua memiliki fenomenal keterampilan yang telah sejak ukuran pemain lain. And in 1960 one of the best teams ever, Ohio State, won the NCAA title led by Jerry Lucas and John Havlicek. Dan pada tahun 1960 salah satu tim terbaik yang pernah, Ohio State, memenangkan gelar NCAA dipimpin oleh Jerry Lucas dan John Havlicek.

Professional basketball underwent major changes in the 1950s that helped increase its popularity. Basket profesional mengalami perubahan besar dalam tahun 1950-an yang membantu meningkatkan popularitas. In 1950, Earl Lloyd, from West Virginia, played for the Washington Capitols and became the first African American to play in the NBA. In 1954, Danny Biasone, owner of the Syracuse Nationals, persuaded the NBA to institute the twenty-four-second shot clock, requiring a team to shoot within that time. This eliminated the slow pace that had long prevailed in the pros and made the NBA more exciting. Teams now scored one hundred points a game regularly. The league also now awarded foul shots when the other team received more than five personal fouls a period, greatly reducing the rough play that had hurt the pro game. In 1956, Red Auerbach of the Boston Celtics made the best deal in NBA history when he acquired the draft rights to Bill Russell, the defensive player and rebounder he needed to complement Bob Cousy and Bill Sharman in the backcourt.

With the addition of Russell, the Celtics became the best pro team ever, winning eleven of the next thirteen championship titles before expansion diluted the talent in the NBA. The St. Louis Hawks, with Bob Pettit , beat the Celtics in 1958, and the Philadelphia 76ers, with Chamberlain, beat them in 1967. But Russell, a player-coach for two titles, and his teammates formed the greatest dynasty in pro ball. Even the Los Angeles Lakers, who had moved from Minneapolis in 1960, with West and Baylor, were no match for the Celtics over these years. While West, Baylor, Chamberlain—who averaged over fifty points a game in 1962—and Oscar Robertson—who in the same year averaged a triple double per game in points, assists, and rebounds—were superior to any individual Celtic, no other team could consistently play defense, re-bound, and run with the Celtics.

College basketball also experienced tremendous growth and increasing racial diversity during the 1960s. While Russell, Chamberlain, Baylor, and Robertson were proof of the integration of college ball in most of the country, many teams from the South would still not play against black players. That changed in the 1960s. In 1963, Loyola College of Chicago, on its way to the NCAA title with four black starters, beat Mississippi State, which had refused to play against a team with a black player the year before. Three years later, Texas Western, with five black starters, beat Adolph Rupp's heavily favored all-white Kentucky team for the NCAA title. Thereafter, black players began to dominate basketball, a trend that has since become steadily more pronounced. While pro and college basketball have hired more black coaches and executives than any other sport, their numbers do not begin to match black players' contribution to the game.

The 1960s and 1970s also witnessed the amazing success of John Wooden's UCLA Bruins . In twelve years from 1964 on, the Bruins won ten NCAA titles. While five titles resulted from the dominance of Lew Alcindor (later Kareem Abdul-Jabbar) and then Bill Walton at center, Wooden won the other five with speed, a full court zone defense, and talented guards and forwards. Other coaches have also compiled excellent NCAA tournament records: Rupp at Kentucky; Dean Smith, another Phog Allen protégé, at North Carolina; Bobby Knight at Indiana; Denny Crum at Louisville; and Mike Krzyzewski at Duke. But Wooden and his Bruins remain unique. They also helped create the excitement that now surrounds the NCAA finals.

With the end of the Celtic dynasty, the NBA fell on relatively hard times in the 1970s. There were great play-ers, of course, like Alcindor with the Milwaukee Bucks, Walton with the Portland Trailblazers, Elvin Hayes with the Washington Bullets, Dave Cowens with the Celtics, Rick Barry with the Golden State Warriors, Willis Reed with the New York Knicks , and West and Chamberlain with the Lakers. But no new transcendent stars emerged. In addition, a number of players with drug problems hurt the league's image. Many felt that the rival American Basketball Association—which started in 1968 and had stars like Connie Hawkins, George Gervin, and the amazing Julius Irving—played a more exciting game. The ABA used a red, white, and blue-colored ball, allowed the three-point shot, and had a helter-skelter style. However, it folded in 1976, after which four of its teams joined the NBA.

College basketball, as usual, provided exciting players to revitalize the pros. In the late 1970s, Larry Bird, a marvelous shooter, passer, and rebounder, starred for Indiana State. In 1979, he played and lost in the NCAA finals to another superb player, Earvin "Magic" Johnson, a six foot nine inch guard for Michigan State. The next year, Johnson went to the Lakers and Bird to the Celtics, where they, with talented teammates, created a rivalry that reinvigorated pro basketball. Of equal importance was David Stern, who became commissioner in 1984. He facilitated a compromise between labor and management and helped the NBA become a global success.

Women's basketball also attracted a larger audience beginning in the 1970s with Anne Meyers of UCLA and Nancy Lieberman of Old Dominion as the first big stars. In the early 1980s, Cheryl Miller at USC and Lynette Woodard at Kansas, the first black stars, along with Carol Blazejowski at Montclair State, demonstrated the scoring and athleticism previously associated with men's ball. In 1982, the first NCAA women's tournament was held as the sport grew in popularity. In 1996, the American Basketball League began and the next year the WNBA , sponsored by the NBA, started. In late 1998, the ABL folded with some teams becoming part of the WNBA. The Houston Comets, with its superstar Cynthia Cooper, dominated the league.

College basketball has been very competitive and hugely successful since the Wooden era. Eighteen different teams won the NCAA tournament from 1976 to 2002, although most have been from the major conferences. Since then, the dunk , banned in 1968 to limit Alcindor, has been restored; the shot clock was introduced along with the three-point field goal; first-year students became eligible to play; and recruiting became more competitive among the big conferences. As with the pros, television has made college basketball available on many channels, all season long, with more money involved every year. Many fine teams have arisen: North Carolina, Kansas, Indiana, Georgetown, Duke, Louisville, Michigan, Kentucky, and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. Increasingly, however, stars have turned pro after one or two years of eligibility and many high school standouts have begun forgoing college altogether. While this has precluded dynasties from developing, it has hurt continuity, hurt the quality of play, and may discourage enthusiasm for the college game.

The pro game enjoyed tremendous success up through the 1990s, thanks to players like Jabbar , Bird, Johnson, Isiah Thomas, Reggie Miller, Charles Barkley, Karl Malone, Patrick Ewing, and Hakeem Olajuwon—and, of course, the magnificent Michael Jordan. Jordan turned pro in 1984, leaving North Carolina early, and became an incredible scorer and a superlative defender for the Chicago Bulls, though it was not until 1991, with Scottie Pippen and Coach Phil Jackson, that the Bulls won a title. They then won five more titles in seven years to rank them near the Celtics. In the process, Jordan became the planet's most famous athlete and the NBA became a marketing phenomenon. Jordan retired in 1998, then returned in 2001, saying he had an " itch that needed to be scratched." Nonetheless, his playing seemed to have lost much of its luster , and despite the emergence of new stars, like Kobe Bryant , Vince Carter, Grant Hill, Allen Iverson, and Shaquille O'Neal, it remained unclear how popular the NBA will be in the years to come.

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